Trans-anethole is a phenylpropene derivative found in many essential oils, including anise oil. Trans-anethole is commercially used as an insecticide and flavorant. This compound exhibits neuromodulatory, anxiolytic, antioxidative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Trans-anethole activates NMDA receptors, decreasing Ca2+ overload and ROS levels and protecting against cerebral ischemia-induced neurodegeneration. Trans-anethole also inhibits growth of Aspergillus and Saccharomyces. In vivo, this compound decreases expression of TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB-1, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and MyD88 and suppresses activation of ERK, p38 MAPK, JNK, c-Jun, and NF-κB.